Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a spectrum of painful inflammatory axial disease.

axSpA can be considered as a spectrum of disease consisting of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).1

Diagram showing axSpA leading to nr-axSpA and AS

At least 50% of patients are likely to progress from nr-axSpA to AS in their lifetime.2

Risk factors for progression include:2


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HLA-B27 positive

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High inflammatory activity

  Elevated CRP

  Inflammatory changes in sacroiliac joints on MRI

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Buttock pain


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Hand drawn icon of previous uveitis eye

Previous uveitis

Hand drawn icon showing low-grade sacroiliitis

Low-grade sacroiliitis



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AS, ankylosing spondylitis; axSpA, axial spondyloarthritis; CRP, C-reactive protein; HLA-B27, human leukocyte antigen B27; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; nr-axSpA; non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.


  1. Rudwaleit M, et al. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68(6):777–783.
  2. Protopopov M & Poddubnyy D. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2018;14(6):525–533.
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UK | April 2021 | 114833

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